Diabetes is a serious health concern due to its potential complications and impact on mortality. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can lead to long-term complications that affect various organs and systems in the body. Here are some key complications associated with diabetes:
Cardiovascular Disease: Individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart attacks, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. High blood sugar levels, along with other risk factors like high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels, contribute to the elevated risk.
Kidney Disease (Nephropathy): Diabetes is one of the leading causes of chronic kidney disease. Persistent high blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys’ filtering system over time, leading to impaired kidney function and the need for dialysis or kidney transplantation.
Eye Complications (Retinopathy): Diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina, leading to diabetic retinopathy. If left untreated or poorly managed, it can result in vision loss and blindness.
Nerve Damage (Neuropathy): High blood sugar levels can damage the nerves throughout the body, resulting in diabetic neuropathy. This can lead to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, pain, or loss of sensation in the extremities, digestive problems, and sexual dysfunction.
Foot Complications: Nerve damage and poor blood circulation associated with diabetes can increase the risk of foot complications. These include foot ulcers, infections, and, in severe cases, lower extremity amputations.
Skin Complications: Diabetes can cause skin conditions, including bacterial and fungal infections, itching, and slow wound healing.
Increased Infection Risk: Diabetes can weaken the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections. Infections, particularly urinary tract infections, skin infections, and fungal infections, are common in people with diabetes.
In terms of mortality, diabetes is a significant contributor. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death globally in 2019. Uncontrolled diabetes and its associated complications can increase the risk of premature death.
However, it’s important to note that with proper management, including lifestyle modifications, medication adherence, and regular medical care, the risk of complications can be significantly reduced. Early detection, timely intervention, and maintaining good glycemic control are key to minimizing the impact of diabetes on mortality and improving overall health outcomes.
If you have diabetes or are at risk, it’s crucial to work closely with your healthcare team to develop an individualized management plan that addresses your specific needs, monitors your risk factors, and helps prevent or manage complications. There are ways to even reverse the diabetes if you taken action in the beginning.